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Biodiversity at REGUA

The Atlantic Forest is one of the main five hotspots Earth's Biodiversity [5]🇧🇷 Paleoenvironmental studies indicate that the Atlantic Forest was once contiguous with the Amazon, having separated during the Tertiary period, when a progressively more arid climate allowed the Caatinga, Cerrado and Pantanal - dominated by open herbaceous vegetation, drier and bushy – formed a formidable barrier between the two great forests [two]🇧🇷 Although the occurrence of wetter periods in the late Pleistocene and Holocene allowed the establishment of forest corridors between the Atlantic Forest and the Amazon [1] [two], for tens of thousands of years, the

Atlântica largely evolved with complete geographic isolation.

Along with a wide latitudinal distribution and a wide altitudinal range due to the mountainous topography of the region, the geographic isolation has produced a rich biodiversity, with an exceptionally high level of endemism [6]🇧🇷 The degree of Endemism of the Flora and Fauna of the Atlantic Forest is around 50%, but reaches 90% for some types of organisms [3]🇧🇷

Bio-inventories at REGUA have shown that, with its continuous forest cover, ranging from the lowland rainforest to the mountain mists at 2,000 meters above sea level, wetlands, rivers, pastures and agricultural fields, REGUA is a important area of the Atlantic Forest for biodiversity and an area of high conservation priority.



456 species of amphibians are found in the Atlantic Forest, of which 282 (62%) are endemic to the biome [8]🇧🇷 73 species have been recorded in REGUA to date. 



682 bird species occur in the Atlantic Forest, and 199 (29%) of these are endemic to the Atlantic Forest [7]🇧🇷 More than 470 species have been registered to date in REGUA. 



2,120 butterfly species were recorded for the Atlantic Forest [8]🇧🇷 Of these, around 430 species have been found in REGUA to date. 


Dragonflies (Lavandeiras) 

REGUA is home to more species of Odonata than anywhere else in the Atlantic Forest, with 204 species recorded to date. 



The Atlantic Forest has a total of 264 recorded species of mammals; of which 72 (27%) are endemic to the biome [8], as well as 80% of primate species [4]🇧🇷 In REGUA a total of 61 species have been registered to date. 



There is clearly an enormous diversity of moths at REGUA and so far 158 species have been recorded, including 76 species of hawkmoth. 



About 311 species of reptiles occur in the Atlantic Forest, with 94 (30%) of them endemic to the bioregion [8]🇧🇷 42 species have been recorded in REGUA to date. 


1. Buso Junior, AA et al. (2013) Late Pleistocene and Holocene Vegetation, Climate Dynamics, and Amazonian Taxa in the Atlantic Forest, Linhares, SE Brazil. Radiocarbon. 55, 2013. pp. 1747-1762.
2. Costa, LP (2003) The historical bridge between the Amazon and the Atlantic Forest of Brazil: a study of molecular phylogeography with small mammals. Journal of Biogeography. 30. pp. 71–86.
3. de Mello Martins, F. (2011) Historical biogeography of the Brazilian Atlantic forest and the Carnaval Moritz model of Pleistocene refugia: what do phylogeographical studies tell us? Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 104. pp. 499-509.
4. Iracambi. (2009) The Atlantic Forest. [Online]. Available from: [Accessed 7 April 2015].
5. Myers, N. et al. (2000) Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature. 403. pp. 853–858.
6. Ribeiro, MC et al. (2011) The Brazilian Atlantic Forest: A Shrinking Biodiversity Hotspot. In: Zachos, FE & Habel, JC (eds.) Biodiversity Hotspots: Distribution and Protection of Conservation Priority Areas. Berlin. Springer.
7. Stotz, DF et al. (1996) Neotropical Birds: Ecology and Conservation. Chicago: University Of Chicago Press.
8. Wildscreen Arkive. (2015) Atlantic forest. [Online]. Available at: [Accessed 7 April 2015].

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